Injection observation methods


There are many available methods

  • Infrasonic and seismic measurements
  • Thermal camera
  • Doppler radar
  • LiDAR
  • Flux measurements of SO2 and other gaseous and particulate effluents
  • Laboratory experiments
  • Physical models of multiphase volcanic plumes as constrained by field data
  • Numerical models for emplacement of the volcanic species into the atmosphere (Meso-NH, MOCAGE and CHIMERE)
  • Satellite stereoscopic imagery (e.g. de Michele et al. 2016)
  • Exploitation of gas/ash observations from satellite instruments (passive radiometers and spectrometers, space LiDARs), both using simple observations and through inverse modeling schemes that involve the use of meso-scale chemistry-transport models (link with WP3)
  • In-situ sampling device (e.g. ASHER, this instrument allows near real-time measurement of particle size, distribution, weight, terminal velocity, and accumulation rate, plus variations of these parameters in time for short lived explosions or long-lasting eruptions)

The ideal would be to have more than one instrument to have collection of material at the source (WP1) at proximal site (WP2) and at medial and distal sites (WP3).