Field measurements

In order to obtain accurate characterization of the volcanic emission source, several complementary field-measurements must be realized:

  • High-frequency recording of the volcanic gas compositions using Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy

  • High-frequency recording of volcanic gas emission rates using dual UV-camera systems

  • In-situ survey of gas compositions with portable or automated Multi-GaS analyzers, and other in-situ methods

  • In-situ sampling and remote observations of volcanic aerosols

  • Ground-based and space-borne sensing of volcanic gas fluxes or gas amounts

  • Remote sensing of gas speciation and distribution in the near-source volcanic plume

  • Remote sensing ash plume dynamics and quantification of particle load

  • Numerical modeling

  • Laboratory analyses and experiments